This fall, I am embarking on the first sabbatical of my academic career. I began teaching twenty years ago in January 1994 as an adjunct at Northeastern University; other than a brief break when I was a non-teaching assistant in graduate school, I have been working. Part of my sabbatical plan for this fall is to engage with historical research and writing in a more regular manner than I have since about 2009. I have been fortunate in engaging with teaching a subject I truly enjoy – the methodology of teaching history – but that coursework, and advising future secondary school history/social studies teachers, has occupied the majority of my time over the past five years.
My application was relatively simple: “I am requesting a sabbatical in Fall 2014 in order to complete research and begin analysis of the ways in which visual culture represent Native Americans in the nineteenth century.” In addition I pointed out that this particular project stemmed from some rudimentary work I did in relation to the National Endowment for the Humanities program in summer 2012 (see blog posts from July 2012).
I have had the great fortune of finding a campus-sponsored writing group this semester as well. A group of fellow faculty and myself are all working through Wendy Belcher’s text on writing articles for publication. I have set the goals of editing a paper I presented in January 2014 on missionaries in Nebraska in the early nineteenth century as well as completing a book proposal based on my research into frontier community development in Nebraska. In addition, I hope to get a draft worked through of this research on how Native Americans are represented in visual culture.
This past Tuesday I re-visited the NY-Historical Society and was delighted to discover a number of sources that will aid me in research and perhaps even inspire a few additional avenues of writing. The bulk of today’s post is focused on writing up what I found on Tuesday, with a few thoughts on the steps I might take from here.
Several pieces from the manuscript side struck me as useful for courses I teach such as Native American History or the United States history surveys. I quickly made notes on a few items referenced below that would likely require return visits and perhaps photographs. In some instances, I wrote down quotes that I believe might prove useful as exercises with students in future classes – perhaps providing the students with the quote and some historical context and then working through quick analysis schemes.
American Indian Collection, box 1, folder 1
- 22 August 1710 – brother we are told that the great queen of great brittain had sent a considerable Number of People with your excellency..to Setle upon the Land Called Skokere?, which wasa great Surprise to us and we were much Dissatisfied at the news, in regard the land belongs to us as your excellency has seen yesterday by the instructions which were given by the late Lieutenant Governor John Nansan to Hendrick…dated the 19th of May 1699…
- June 21 1842 – letter from Quakers referring to Indians invoking the “present evil and destroyer of the human race is whiskey” you cannot prosper in any undertaking without refusing to taste, touch, or handle this unclean thing. Your white brethren are so well convinced of this truth that a great change has come over them in this respect. It is considered among them to be unmanly and disgraceful to use firewater…
Years ago I completed a long bit of research on factionalism in the Cherokee Nation from the 1830s through the Civil War period. I had originally intended to return to this field for my Ph.D. research and then I wrote on other topics but I am always interested in finding new materials – in this case I was able to hold in my hand an original letter written by Principal Chief John Ross!
American Indian Collection, box 1, folder 2
- February 15 1864 letter from John Ross regarding the suffering Cherokees
- September 26, 1871, office of US Agent for the Cherokees
I was curious about these comptroller records that seemed to indicate how land sales were conducted in lieu of the residents (natives) paying some form of tax. It’s not a project in which I’m engaged, but it interested me from the perspective of providing some different types of documents for students to work with in class. The second item had a number of “animal totems” for signatures to represent assent on a treaty agreement by Delawares. The particular images fell outside the purview of my study in both chronology and type (I’m trying to discern why people outside native culture choose to portray natives in a certain way) but I found the animals intriguing and discovered them on another document.
American Indian Collection, box 1, folder 3
- Comptroller, New York State lands sold in 1843 includes reference to Buffalo Creek Reservation for paying of tax? Total is $26.24
- Reduced facsimile removed from Charles Heartman auction catalog book? June 11, 1932; treaty from 13 July 1765 featuring animal signatures for a variety of Delawares – deer female?, turkey, porcupine, wolf?, turtle?, possom, buck, fox or wolf?, beaver
American Indian Collection, box 1, folder 4
- Treaty/petition to the legislature of New York 12 January 1788 mixture of names and animal signatures, turtle, fox?, bear? Hendrick Onaghtoron…
My first find in the manuscripts side of the NY-Historical Society came only five folders into the process and immediately at the front of said folder. It was the type of image I was not surprised to find, being an ad for tobacco products and featuring an image that uses regalia as well as a pose reminiscent of late 16th and early 17th century European perceptions of native people.
American Indian Collection, box 1, folder 5
- West Jersey Press, Wednesday June 23, 1869 ad for JP Grant manufacturer and dealer in cigars, tobacco, wholesale and retail, no 3 market street Camden NJ, ALL goods sold at Philadelphia prices native male leans on barrel and sack, loin cloth and breech clouts, leggings, tobacco Clay pipe on left hand smoking, musket in right, roach atop scalp, necklace of some type with shells?, plug of tobacco at his feet
- Very interesting translation of Indian interpreter extract from book of town records Salem county New Jersey
The translations of certain dialects I found fascinating as well and certainly the material from folder 6 I plan on revisiting for a separate project related to missionaries among native people.
American Indian Collection, box 1, folder 6
- Translations of prayers Abenaki, Penobscot
The alleged portrait of Black Hawk was one of the few items I expected to find in this collection and for awhile I thought it might have gone missing from the box. The sketch is purported to be the work of Dr. Samuel DeCamp, a military surgeon who served in the U.S. Army from at least the 1830s through his retirement in 1862. The portrait is different from others of Black Hawk (a Sauk chief) I have seen, including a famous George Catlin piece. The side profile is one such notable issue as is the pronounced nose – whether the work is therefore that of an untrained artist and any less “accurate” a portrayal I can’t say. I’m curious to dig into this piece more and DeCamp’s background to see whether the claim in the file can be supported.
American Indian Collection, box 1, folder 7
- Sketch supposedly of Black Hawk by Dr. Samuel DeCamp
The following collection was a great example of the kind of unexpected stuff that happens when you walk into an archive. As soon as I explained my project to Tammy K. she immediately suggested I look at the Gosman papers. It’s the kind of collection I never would have stumbled on with my own efforts, yet because she was paying attention at some point to these documents, they came to my attention. Young Richard Gosman was between the ages of 11 and 13 when he produced what, in Tammy’s words, were in effect ‘zines of the nineteenth century. He wrote articles, created the names of the papers, illustrated them, and drew up his own ads for each as well as kept track of volume numbers, etc. If you peruse my rough notes below, you can see some of the cool observations one can make out of this type of primary source. As my artist/actor friend Tony W. pointed out – something must be done about these papers!
What’s fascinating to me is the level of work and creativity Gosman placed into his creations – the recipes are likely from his own family kitchen in Long Island City, the most common add is for eggs from the RHG company (him), and there are great stories about seeing a variety of shows at Madison Square Garden. The images Gosman creates of natives are exclusively those representing native people from the Great Plains, and, arguably, are largely Lakotas. The young boys and older men are almost exclusively in fringed leggings and shirts and on horseback, often adorned with complex feather headdresses. As some of Gosman’s drawings appear to be real people, one has to wonder whether he saw their images in programs from Wild West shows or in actual newspapers, etc. Regardless, this particular collection opens up a lot of possibilities – there is ample material with which to work on the question of visually interpreting native people, but there is also much to consider in terms of the entire project. Are there other such examples? I feel as though there are multiple directions for this particular resource.
MS 257, Gosman papers 1747-1932
- Richard Gosman school composition books
- Gosman has created these interesting newspaper/club journals that reflect some interests of his (stories, fables, graphic representation) and he also populates his journals with ads, often for an egg producer who bears his own initials!
- People’s paper January 1887 – article on how to get to Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show from Blissville Long Island City to Madison Square Garden: gleasons car for three that would five cents, then the 34th street boat for 8 cents, then the 4th avenue cars for 38 cents if it is two persons and a child
- Image in back “the Wild West soon to be managed by RHG – two plains Indians on horseback riding in saddles with reins, war paint is applied, fringed leggings and shirts, one native holds aloft a spear and has a long eagle headdress; the other no discernible weapon but feathers in hair;
- March has recipe for queen muffins – quart of. Milk, 3/4 cup yeast, 2tbs white sugar, 1 tbs butter or lard, 1 tsp salt, flour to make a batter, 2 eggs; set batter leaving eggs out, to rise overnight, beat eggs very light stir into batter, bake on muffin rings on a quick oven twenty minutes; natives on back named Cut Meat, Rocky Bear, Sun Eagle; Rocky is “chief of the souixs” hand drawing a bow, Indian horseback saddle blanket and reins, spear, fringed leggings and shirt, one feather; natives on bottom have necklace, earring, two feathers minimum except rocky bear who has larger eagle feather headdress
- Reference to PT Barnum show and John L. Sullivan, the boxing elephant? (from a rival circus show run by Adam Forepaugh?), as well as the skeleton of Jumbo
- July 1887 Sioux boys breaking ponies image no saddles but reins; leggings with fringe at least one feather
- April 1887 Flies Above and Red Bear; scene at bottom with trooper getting shot by native with pistol; one native down, several on horseback
- August 1887 Indian fight ad in reference to circus
- September 1887 how we brought the mail to Cisco features tale told by older man and illustrated with natives firing arrows at stage
- December 1887 includes Father Christmas modeled after Nast? Long wolf with eagle headdress and earring; Indians running with fringe etc
- January 1888 – Tim Tooley dying as struck by an arrow; native shot with pistol one feather fringed sleeves, arrow, “fell like a log from his horse”
- February 1888 native running no shirt, two feathers fringed leggings
- Illustrated monthly no date native with eagle headdress on horseback no saddle, reins, fringed leggings, fringed shirt; hunting scene natives watching white hunter they are in background and have larger headdresses; native on back rides away from pistol bearing other
- Harpers young people 1885 – several illustrations some native people with dogs, etc
Much of the Patriotic Envelope collection has been digitized and you can see some of that collection via a Library of Congress digital exhibit that the NY-Historical Society put together with funding from the Andrew Mellon Foundation.
PR 117 Patriotic Envelope Collection Box 7
- AJ89017 – the school of The Indiana zouve – union soldier zouve but in buckskins, fringed, moccasin, musket, powder horn, dead deer at feet
- AJ90010 – USA published by car bell hartford, ct – Indian bare chested, breech clout, gun, blanket, necklace with bear claws, feathers overlooking waterfall and pine trees
- Death to traitors envelope
- AJ92004 – interesting sunny south our country babe (Hercules?) strangling snake of abolition and holding confederate flag
- Admiral William T. Sampson image and native above him holding the American flag, native has necklace and blanket, etc
PR 117 Patriotic Envelope Collection Album 4
- Sailor next to native dressed in red blanket leggings, moccasins, holding hatchet, gold arm band, feathers in headband, background has natives in dugout canoes but they are spearing a deer????
- America? Reclining against shield and with eagle roman type toga and headdress with feathers
- Wigfall on his promised descent to Washington breech clout, leggings, fringe, tomahawk in hand (reference to Texan secessionist Louis T. Wigfall)
- Envelope featuring Washington holding a musket and looking on a portrait of himself dressed as roman, Columbia or liberty is with him and there are two natives one with scalp lock feathersm blanket, breech clout, and other with longer hair, feathers, spear and blanket
PR 117 Patriotic Envelope Collection Box 8
- Maybe in the future look at folder five as it has some interesting language choices in terms of calling for a “greater” United States Spanish American war era
PR 301 Decorative Envelope Collection Box 1
- Nothing really in here though there are a few firsts that could be interesting to some people with Olympics envelopes and a series from the White House that lists presidential dates?
As in manuscripts, I was aided in the print collection by some folks who, once they heard what I was looking for, made some suggestions. The Bella Landauer collection was something I had a vague recollection of from my visit in 2012, but I hadn’t read the finding aid online as yet. This collection clearly exhibits characteristics of a needed deep read because in two folders alone from one box I found quite a few examples that will prove useful.
PR 031 Bella C. Landauer Collection Series II, Ephemera Box 37
- Folder miscellaneous – need to examine some dates but this one is worth a deep return visit as it includes numerous illustrations as well as a fantastic pamphlet from Edwin Eastman “captured and branded by the Camanche Indians in the year 1860” which includes a long listing of medicines Eastman learned about while captured; several pieces in German which is useful, and a Cherokee medicines and rejuvenating elixir pamphlet from Dr. Merwin and Company
- Folder Kickapoo – “the Indians as a race, represent the embodiment of perfect health. From the time the pilgrim fathers…”
All in all, it was a profitable visit and one I am likely to soon repeat so I can take more time with the collection. Along with looking at these objects directly, I’ve been reading a variety of secondary sources to help contextualize the images I’m looking at in this archive and others I hope to visit this fall. Meantime, you can find me on occasion near 79th and Central Park West, hanging with Frederick Douglass or perhaps Abe Lincoln.